More Tools. Learn how to download the Knovel Mobile app for offline content access. Learn about Knovel workflow integrations with engineering software and information discovery platforms. Access promotional content and links to illustrate the power of Knovel Search and analytical tools for your end users.
My Notes. Knovel subscription is supported by Knovel Guest Usage. Cookies are used by this site. To decline or learn more, visit our Cookies page. Knovel offers following tools to help you find materials and properties data Material Property Search. Also known as Data Search, find materials and properties information from technical references.
Visual and interactive search of NIST pure compounds database for chemicals and their properties. Promotional Toolkit. Engineering Data Module Beta.
This Reference is not available in your current subscription. Notify your administrator of your interest.
Introduction to Nonlinear Optics Details Since the early days of nonlinear optics in the s, the field has expanded dramatically, and is now a vast and vibrant field with countless technological applications. Providing a gentle introduction to the principles of nonlinear optics, this textbook is ideal for graduate students starting their research in this exciting area. After basic ideas have been outlined, the book offers a thorough analysis of second harmonic generation and related second-order processes, before moving on to third-order effects, the nonlinear optics of short optical pulses and coherent effects such as electromagnetically-induced transparency.
A simplified treatment of high harmonic generation is presented at the end. More advanced topics, such as the linear and nonlinear optics of crystals, the tensor nature of the nonlinear coefficients and their quantum mechanical representation, are confined to specialist chapters so that readers can focus on basic principles before tackling these more difficult aspects of the subject. Show less. View More. Back to Table of Contents. Introduction to X-ray Physics, Optics, and Applications MacDonald, Carolyn A Open Share Save. Click here to Expand all. Click here to Collapse all.
View Section, Front Matter. View Section, Preface. The frequency difference between two of the input beams is selected to match the frequency of a vibrational energy state of the target molecule.
An Introduction to Nonlinear Optics
When this resonant condition is fulfilled, the stimulating beams enhance the selected vibrational mode e. Using the third beam, this motion can be probed. The resulting CARS signal is generated at the blueshifted anti-Stokes spectral range when compared to the input beams. Stimulated Raman scattering SRS is another variant of coherent nonlinear processes used to selectively probe molecular vibrations.
Introduction to Nonlinear Optics - PDF Free Download
When the diff erence frequency between two input beams matches a vibrational resonance, a small fraction about one millionth of the incident energy is transferred from one beam to the other. In order to measure the subtle variation, one of the input beams is intensitymodulated at high frequency. This modulation is transferred to the other beam and can be measured using sensitive photodetection. This allows video rate imaging of dynamic processes, not to mention dramatically increasing analytical throughput.
On the other hand, the spontaneous Raman microscopy typically gives richer spectral information which facilitates analysis of complex mixtures. The development of coherent Raman imaging systems capable of rapidly collecting rich spectral information is gradually overcoming this limitation. As a result, it is entirely possible that Raman microscopy based on spontaneous Raman scattering will largely be replaced with coherent Raman imaging in the pharmaceutical setting in the coming years.
To illustrate the value of nonlinear optical imaging in the pharmaceutical setting, various examples are presented below. These include imaging drugs and dosage forms during the lifecycle of the product, from manufacturing to their fate in the body. Only label-free imaging examples are presented. Nonlinear optical imaging is slowly gaining interest in the area of drug and formulation imaging Table 1. Some of the earliest work focused on using CARS to image the composition of emulsions .
In this work, the authors utilized CARS microscopy to image based on the C-H stretch vibrational region cm Later work conducted by Day et al. CARS microscopy allowed them to discriminate between undigested oil and lipolytic products without the need for labeling. CARS microscopy has also been used to investigate drug loaded films.
Kang et al. After identifying the distribution of API within the polymer matrix, they went a step further and imaged the drug release from the matrix in a static medium using CARS microscopy using video rate imaging. The first work performed using CARS microscopy to image drug release with dynamic dissolution medium was conducted by Windbergs et al.
They studied theophylline containing tablets and lipid extrudates and found that during dissolution , theophylline monohydrate crystals grew on the surface of the theophylline tablets but not on the surface of the lipid extrudates. Fussell et al. They also studied the dissolution of theophylline Fig. They also found that the addition of methyl cellulose to the dissolution medium delayed the monohydrate crystal growth and changed the crystal morphology resulting in an improved dissolution rate for theophylline anhydrate.
The more recent development of SRS allowed Wang et al. SRS provides the same chemically-specific rapid imaging available with CARS microscopy and it is has reduced background noise. Slipchenko et al. They were able to map the drug and excipient distribution and use these results for comparison between amlodipine besylate formulations from different manufacturers. The authors conclude that SRS microscopy shows good prospective in evaluation of particle size, structural integrity and homogeneity of APIs and excipients in pharmaceutical dosage forms.
Hyperspectral imaging allows rapid imaging over a spectral range instead of a single frequency. Garbacik et al.
They were able to identify areas of alpha, beta and delta polymorphs of mannitol in an area of recrystallized mannitol. Wanapun et al. They studied amorphous griseofulvin and chlorpropamide and were able to successfully image the recrystallization using SHG . They also went a step further and used SHG to image trace crystallinity and estimated that SHG has a detection limit for crystallinity of about 4 ppm . SHG is not only limited to imaging pure powdered samples.
Recent work published by Kestur et al. Kestur et al. Hsu et al. They found larger naproxen crystal growth at higher temperatures. Nonlinear optics is more established in the biomedical than pharmaceutical setting . Its chemical and physical specificity means it has been used to image tissue structures and cells, and cellular organelles may even be distinguished. Nonlinear optics has been used to image both drug molecules and various particles in cell cultures and tissue samples Table 2. Dermal and transdermal delivery is the most well-established drug delivery application for label-free nonlinear optical imaging [2, 23, 24].
TPEF has been the most extensively used nonlinear technique to probe exogenous molecules, including oils and other auto-fluorescing molecules [25, 26]. CARS and SRS have more recently been used to image exogenous lipids as well as nonfluorescing pharmaceutical compounds [24, 27, 28].
For example, Freudiger et al. The DMSO penetrated more deeply than the retinoic acid. The different hydrophilicities of the two substances also led to them localizing differently in the skin. The passage of nanoparticles into skin has also been investigated. In particular, metal particles can exhibit a resonantly enhanced signal which increases the sensitivity of the technique, and therefore the technique is ideal for probing the fate of such metal nanoparticle based drug delivery systems, e.
The work on polymeric nanoparticulate based drug delivery in tissues has been the focus of in an interesting series of ex vivo studies by Garrett, Lalatsa and coworkers .